Nanotechnology is the science that uses or creates extremely small materials called nanometers, through the joint use of engineering, science, physics, chemistry and technology. To understand the size of a nanometer ranging from ten thousand to one million times smaller than a millimetre, just think of a sheet of A4 paper that is about 100,000 nanometers thick. The study of nature and the observation of phenomena that are often not visible to the human eye, such as the movement of bacteria, or the process of chlorophyll photosynthesis, have led to the development of nanotechnologies that were born about 50 years ago. They are defined as emerging or exponential technologies, in the sense that they have developed so rapidly that they have grown at a faster rate than other technologies and have a great impact on our lives.
At the base of the cultural and technological revolution of this 2.0 era, there are nanotechnologies with the use of programmable nanorobots that can perform very complex operations even within the human body.
They are applied in various scientific fields such as biology, engineering, optics, energy, and chemistry but also in medicine.
In the medical field, for example, we have micro robots called nanobots, which can enter the human body and even recognize diseased cells, limiting the spread of the tumour, without necessarily having to operate on a patient and remaining a type of non-invasive treatment, also improving the diagnosis and therapy systems to be used. On the one hand, they will therefore be used to heal and on the other hand, they will be developed to extend life or even to become immortal.
The products of nanotechnology that we have today are constantly evolving and are being improved more and more, leading to the formation of nanotechnological materials such as:
• carbon nanotubes used in cars, televisions and electronic circuits;
• nanotechnological processes such as the nanopattern;
• nanocomposite structures or nanoparticles present in fabrics and packaging, fuels, paints, cosmetics, creams and food preservatives.
However, the problem linked to nanotechnologies is divided both on the health front and on that disposal. Many workers are exposed to health damage precisely because they are an active part of the nanotechnology production process. For years many companies have not informed their staff, keeping them in the dark from damage to their health from being exposed to nanomaterials daily. In addition, there are many harmful ones such as microbial silver and titanium dioxide, and they cause permanent damage to the lung and the genetic level of the DNA. This occurs especially in countries where precise rules are not applied to protect the health and safety of workers, where the damage caused to the environment is not even thought of, without respecting any rules, but only those of business and earnings. Based on the scientific studies of experts, new science has been formed today which is called nanotoxicology, to study all the effects on humans and the environment of nanoparticles produced by artificial nanomaterials.